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Talk about the Prostate Specific Antigen Test May 26, 2022

1.What's Prostate Specific Antigen ?

Prostate antigen should refer to prostate specific antigen (PSA), which is an antigen associated with prostate cancer. Under physiological conditions, it is mainly synthesized by prostate duct epithelial cells, secretes human seminal plasma, and enters human blood circulation in small amounts. Total prostate should refer to total prostate specific antigen (t-PSA) with a reference interval of <4.0 µg/L.

2.What's Free Prostate Specific Antigen f-psa ?

Free prostate should refer to free prostate specific antigen (f-PSA), with a reference interval of <1.0 µg/L and a ratio of f-PSA/t-PSA greater than 0.25.

 

3.The significance of the ratio of PSA and FREE PSA ?

There are two forms of PSA in blood: free PSA (free PSA, f-PSA) and conjugated PSA (complexed PSA, c-PSA). It is composed of a complex formed by globulin and α1-antitrypsin, among which the complex formed by PSA and α1-antichymotrypsin is the main one. 80% of serum t-PSA is c-PSA and 20% is f-PSA. The t-PSA currently detected in serum is the sum of f-PSA and PSA complexed with α1-antichymotrypsin (PSA-ACT). Since there are proteins transcribed and expressed by ACT in prostate cancer cells, c-PSA in the blood can be significantly increased and t-PSA can also be significantly increased in patients with prostate cancer. -ACT) is only 1% of prostate cancer patients, so patients with benign prostatic lesions have only slightly elevated c-PSA and t-PSA in their blood. Therefore, in benign prostate disease, f-PSA is elevated, while c-PSA and t-PSA are slightly elevated; the opposite is true in prostate cancer. At present, it is believed that when the detection value of t-PSA is in the gray area range (4.0-10.0µg/L) and the ratio of f-PSA/t-PSA in serum is 0.15, it can be used as the distinguishing point of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer, and the ratio is less than 0.15 Prostate cancer is very likely. At present, the ratio of f-PSA/t-PSA is used to identify the possibility of benign and malignant prostate, so as to determine whether a prostate biopsy is needed.

 

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