Do you know the test methods of dengue fever ?

What is Dengue  Fever ?

Dengue fever is an acute infectious disease caused by the dengue virus and is mainly spread through mosquito bites. Dengue virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which are mainly active in tropical and subtropical areas.

After being infected with dengue virus, patients may experience symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, and rash. In some cases, dengue fever can progress to severe illnesses such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome, which can be life-threatening.

The Diagnostic methods of dengue fever?

Several ways to detect dengue fever include:

  •  1)Serological testing: Confirm infection by detecting dengue virus antibodies and antigens in the     patient’s serum.
  • a ) Antigen test Method :Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) or point-of-care tests are available to detect dengue virus antigens in a patient’s blood. These tests work by detecting viral proteins present during the acute phase of infection. They provide quick results within 15-20 minutes and are suitable for use in resource-limited settings. However, their sensitivity may vary depending on the timing of the test in relation to symptom onset.
  • b)Antibody Tests: Antibody-based tests detect the presence of dengue-specific antibodies in the blood, which the immune system produces in response to the infection. There are two types of antibody tests
  • (1)IgM Antibody Test: Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody tests are commonly used to diagnose acute dengue infections. IgM antibodies are produced early in the infection and can be detected within a few days after symptom onset. These tests help confirm recent dengue infection.
  • (2) IgG Antibody Test: Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody tests detect long-term antibodies produced in response to dengue infection. IgG antibodies can persist in the bloodstream for months to years after the infection. IgG tests are used to determine previous exposure to dengue virus or to identify individuals who have developed immunity to specific dengue serotypes.
  • 2)Virus isolation: Inoculate the patient’s blood or other body fluid samples into cell culture to observe whether dengue virus can be isolated.
  • 3)PCR detection: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can detect dengue virus nucleic acid in patient body fluids and is a rapid and sensitive detection method.
  • 4)Platelet count: Dengue infection can cause thrombocytopenia, so the patient’s platelet count is measured to aid diagnosis.
  • Clinical symptoms and epidemiological investigation: Combining the patient’s clinical symptoms and epidemiological investigation can help doctors make a preliminary diagnosis of dengue fever.It should be noted that the diagnosis of dengue fever requires a combination of the above methods to ensure accuracy and reliability.

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Post time: Apr-30-2024